Titan IV

The Titan IV family (including the IVA and IVB) of space boosters were used by the U.S. Air Force.

For orbital spaceflights, or for launches into interplanetary space, which is usually a fixed location on the ground but may also be on a floating platform such as the San Marco platform, or the Sea Launch launch vessel or from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.

The Cape Canaveral Air Force Station is a detachment of the 45th Space Wing , at nearby Patrick Air Force Base; located on Cape Canaveral in the State of Florida, CCAFS is the primary Launch Head of the Eastern Range, Florida, and Vandenberg Air Force Base for the Western Range.


Vandenberg Air Force Base is a United States military installation with a spaceport, in Santa Barbara County, California, United States.

The Titan IV was retired in 2005. The final launch (B-30) from Cape Canaveral AFS occurred on April 29, 2005, and the final launch from Vandenberg AFB occurred on October 19, 2005.

The Titan rocket family was established in October 1955 when the Air Force awarded Lockheed Martin a ctract to build an ICBM.

Lockheed Martin is a large Multinational corporation aerospace manufacturer and advanced technology company formed in 1995 by the Horizontal integration of Lockheed with Martin Marietta....
(the former Glenn L. Martin Company) a contract to build an intercontinental ballistic missile
Intercontinental ballistic missile

An intercontinental ballistic missile, or ICBM, is a long-range ballistic missile typically designed for nuclear weapons delivery, that is, delivering one or more nuclear weapon (SM-68). It became known as the Titan I.

The Titan I was the United States first true multistage rocket ICBM. It was the first in a series of Titan , but was unique among them in that it used LOX and RP-1 as its propellants, while the later Titan versions all used storeable fuels instead., the nation's first two-stage ICBM and replaced the Atlas ICBM as the second underground vertically stored, silo-based ICBM. Both stages of the Titan I used liquid oxygen.

Liquid oxygen is a form of the element oxygen. It has a pale blue color and is strongly paramagnetism. Liquid oxygen has a density of 1.141 g/cm and is moderately cryogenics ...
and RP-1.

RP-1 is a highly refined form of kerosene outwardly similar to jet fuel, used as a rocket fuel. Although having a lower specific impulse than liquid hydrogen and thus less thrust per unit mass, RP-1 is cheaper, can be stored at room temperature, is far less of an explosive hazard and is far more dense as propellants. A subsequent version of the Titan family, was the Titan II

The Titan II was an Intercontinental ballistic missile and space launcher developed by the Glenn L. Martin Company from the earlier Titan I missile was similar to the Titan I, but was much more powerful. Designated as LGM-25C, the Titan II was the largest missile developed for the USAF at that time. The Titan II had newly developed engines which used Aerozine 50 and Nitrogen Tetroxide as fuel and oxidizer.

Titan IIIC was a space booster used by the United States Air Force. It was launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL., and Vandenberg Air Force Base, CA..Development began in 1961 with the Titan IIIA. Years later, the Titan IVB evolved from the Titan III family and is similar to the Titan 34D. The last Titan IVA was launched in August 1998. The first Titan IVB flew on Feb. 23, 1997. The Titan IVB was an upgraded rocket having a new guidance system, flight termination system, ground checkout system, solid rocket motor upgrade and a 25 percent increase in thrust capability.

In the early 1980s, General Dynamics planned to use a Space Shuttle.

NASA's Space Shuttle, officially called the Space Transportation System , is the spacecraft currently used by the United States government for its human spaceflight missions to lift a Lunar Module into orbit and then launch a Titan IV rocket with Project Apollo.

The Apollo program was a human spaceflight program undertaken by NASA during the years 1961?1975 with the goal of conducting manned moon landing missions - type Service Module to rendezvous and dock – making a moonship for a lunar landing. The plan required the Space Shuttle and Titan IV to use aluminum-lithium fuel tanks instead of aluminum to make a greater payload weight for takeoff. The original plan never came to fruition but in the 1990s both the Shuttle and the Titan IV were converted to aluminum-lithium tanks to rendezvous with the highly inclined orbit of the Russian Mir.

Mir was a Soviet Union orbital station. Mir was the world's first consistently inhabited long-term research station in space, and the first 'third generation' type space station, constructed over a number of years with a Space station.

A space station is an artificial structure designed for humans to live in outer space. So far only low earth orbit stations are implemented, also known as orbital stations, The Titan IVB became obsolete with the advent of the Atlas V.

The Atlas V rocket is an expendable launch vehicle formerly built by Lockheed Martin and now built by the Lockheed Martin-Boeing joint venture United Launch Alliance rocket and the Delta IV rocket.

Delta IV is an active expendable launch system in the Delta rocket family. Delta IV uses rockets designed by Boeing's Boeing Integrated Defense Systems and built in the United Launch Alliance facility in Decatur, Alabama heavy rocket booster launch vehicles in 2005.

A Titan IVB launched NASAs Cassini Saturn orbiter in October 15th 1997.

General characteristics

* Primary Function: Space booster
* Builder: Lockheed-Martin Astronautics
* Power Plant:
* Stage 0 consisted of two solid-rocket motors.
* Stage 1 used an LR87 liquid-propellant rocket engine.
* Stage 2 used the LR91 liquid-propellant engine.
* Optional upper stages included the Centaur (rocket stage)

Centaur is a rocket stage designed for use as the upper stage of space launch vehicles. Centaur boosts its satellite payload to its final orbit or, in the case of an interplanetary space probe, to escape velocity Inertial Upper Stage.

The Inertial Upper Stage , originally known as the Interim Upper Stage, is a two-stage solid-fueled booster rocket developed by the U.S. Air Force for the launching of large payloads from either a Titan III rocket or from the payload bay of the Space Shuttle....

* Guidance System: A ring laser gyro

A ring laser gyroscope uses interference of laser light within a optical ring to detect changes in orientation and spin. It is an example of a Sagnac effect.... guidance system manufactured by Honeywell.

Honeywell is a major United States multinational corporation list of conglomerates company that produces a variety of consumer products, engineering services, and aerospace systems for a wide variety of customers, from private consumers to major corporations and governments....

* Thrust: Solid rocket motors provide 1.7 million pounds force (7.56 MN) per motor at liftoff.
* First stage provides an average of 548,000 pounds force (2.44 MN)
* second stage provides an average of 105,000 pounds force (467 kN).
* Optional Centaur upper stage provides 33,100 pounds force (147 kN) and the Inertial Upper Stage provides up to 41,500 pounds force (185 kN).
* Length: Up to 204 feet (62.17 m)
* Lift Capability:
* Can carry up to 47,800 pounds (21,680 kg) into a low-earth orbit
* up to 12,700 pounds (5,760 kg) into a geosynchronous orbit.

A geosynchronous orbit is an orbit around the Earth with an orbital period matching the Earth's sidereal day rotation period. This synchronization means that for an observer at a fixed location on Earth, a satellite in a geosynchronous orbit returns to exactly the same place in the sky at exactly the same time each day....
when launched from Cape Canaveral AFS, Fla.;
* and up to 38,800 pounds (17,600 kg) into a low-earth orbit.

A Low Earth Orbit is generally defined as an orbit within the Locus extending from the Earth?s surface up to an altitude of 2,000 km. Given the rapid orbital decay of objects below approximately 200 km, the commonly accepted definition for LEO is between 160 - 2,000 km above the Earth surface.

A polar orbit is an orbit in which a satellite passes above or nearly above both Geographical poles of the body being orbited on each revolution....
when launched from Vandenberg AFB.
* into geosynchronous orbit:
* with Centaur upper stage 12,700 lb (5,760 kg)
* with Inertial Upper Stage 5,250 pounds (2,380 kg)
* Maximum Takeoff Weight: Approximately 2.2 million pounds (1,000,000 kg)
* Cost: Approximately $250-350 million, depending on launch configuration.
* Date deployed: June 1989


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